Equity is a fundamental basis for understanding the context and identifying future actions for enhancing ambition, addressing implementation barriers and opportunities, and strengthening international cooperation under the Convention and the Paris Agreement. Considering equity and the best available science together will strengthen the science-policy interface. The IPCC has recognized that there are “close linkages between climate change mitigation, adaptation and development pathways.” Climate change action in the areas of mitigation, adaptation, response measures and loss and damage designed and conducted in the context of sustainable development, equity, and poverty eradication, and rooted in the development aspirations of the societies within which they take place, will be more acceptable, durable and effective.
An equity-based approach to climate action in light of the best available science would hence require that the GST take into account the following coming from IPCC and other reports:
- “Accelerated financial support for developing countries from developed countries and other sources is a critical enabler to enhance mitigation action and address inequities in access to finance, including its costs, terms and conditions and economic vulnerability to climate change for developing countries. Scaled-up public grants for mitigation and adaptation funding ... would be cost-effective and have high social returns in terms of access to basic energy.” (IPCC)
- “Tracked financial flows fall short of the levels needed to achieve mitigation goals across all sectors and regions. The challenge of closing gaps is largest in developing countries as a whole.” (IPCC)
- The needs of developing countries to achieve their NDCs are evolving and around USD5.8 to 11.5 trillion up to 2030 is needed as per the first SCF needs determination report, recognizing that not all countries and regions have been able to quantify their needs. (SCF)
- “International financial, technology and capacity building support to developing countries will enable greater implementation and encourage ambitious nationally determined contributions over time.” (IPCC)
- “Even if extensive global mitigation efforts are implemented, there will still be a large need for financial, technical and human resources for adaptation” (IPCC)
- “International cooperation on technology development and transfer accompanied by capacity building, knowledge sharing, and technical and financial support can accelerate the global diffusion of mitigation technologies, practices and policies at national and sub-national levels, and align these with other development objectives. Challenges in and opportunities to enhance innovation cooperation exist, including in the implementation of elements of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement as per the literature assessed, such as in relation to technology development and transfer, and finance. International cooperation on innovation works best when tailored to specific institutional and capability contexts, when it benefits local value chains, when partners collaborate equitably and on voluntary and mutually agreed terms, when all relevant voices are heard, and when capacity building is an integral part of the effort. Support to strengthen technological innovation systems and innovation capabilities, including through financial support in developing countries would enhance engagement in and improve international cooperation on innovation.” (IPCC)
- Developing countries since 2001 have identified their technology needs through the TNAs and have proposed more than 1000 TAPs, yet most of these remain unfunded, resulting in implementation gaps in terms of fulfilling the technology transfer provisions of the UNFCCC and PA. (UNFCCC)
Without the needed finance and technology transfer, developing countries are left to undertake climate actions on their own resources which are often constrained by other challenges.